Bhasha Mandakini Collections

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    Hoysala Architecture Part-2
    The Hoysala rulers extended great patronage to architecture and sculpture, which is unmatched by any other dynasty in Karnataka. One of the important characteristics of the Hoysala architecture are their artistic pillars. Although the Hoysala pillars are an imitation of the square cushioned pillars of the Dravidian style, they have their own distinctive features. Being influenced by the Chalukya style, the Hoysala sculptors began to use a lathe for their pillars. They roughly prepared a block of soapstone, which was then turned on a lathe, and then finally carved into various shapes and sizes using an iron chisel. The base of the pillar is square, the middle portion represents an inverted bell or lotus, and the upper portion is circular in shape. The designs on the pillar are circular in high and low reliefs. Sometimes the pillar has two wheels on top instead of one, with a lotus in between the two wheels. Above this, there are square shaped cushions of diverse ornate decorations and bracket stones, which connect the pillars to the ceilings. On the sloping bracket stones above the pillars of the navarangaor hall, and half pillars of the outer wall, are carved fine iamges of salabhanjikaandmadanikafigures. The tops of these pillars are covered with several captivating carvings. No two pillars have the same carvings and ornamentation. The four pillars of the navaranga are completely covered with ornamentation, and some surfaces are so well polished that they reflect light. The central area of some pillars do not have any carvings and are simply polished. These features can also be seen in temples of the Badami Chaluka dynasty in North Karanataka and some temples of the Himadri sect. Therefore, these features had not been originally created by the Hoysalas but were adapted and integrated by them in their architecture. Although they have given these feature a new shape through their artistic ingenuity. The uneven surfaces of the walls provided the sculptures with more space for ornamentation. They have thus, covered every inch in carvings of exquisite beauty.
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    History of the Kannada Cinema New Wave Films 1971-80
    "The impact of Sanskara brought several well known Kannada stories, novels and plays to the screen in 1917. The success of Vamsha Vriksha in 1972 brought new hope for the new way. The Film was based on Dr.S.L. Byrappa’s novel. Vamsha Vriksha, the film was jointly directed by Girish karnad and B.V.Karnath. This film bagged the award for best direction and regional award. In 1973, Sankalpa was directed by P.V. Ananthanagarakatti Bindu jadev. Madi Madidavaja was based on well-known novelist Basavaraja kattimani, it won the state award for second best film and best cameraman award for the year. 1973-1974 The other picture of the year ‘Kaadu’ based on Alanahali Krishna novel. Triveni’s novel Kankanamade in the same name directed by N.B.N.Prasad bagged the state award for the best film. In 1975, B.N. Karnath directed the film based on the famous novelist Dr.Shivaram Karnath Choman Dudi. It is the story of a landless agricultural lady struggling to own path in life. It won the swarna kamal award for the best feature film and Vasudev rao’s acting as Chuma was strikingly natural and won the best actress award at the national level. In kakanakote, Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane and Kanneshwara Rama the emphasis was on reals Kakanakote based on Dr. Masthi Venkatesh Iyengar popular play commercial principle and new way films principle is mixed but commercial principle dominated. Kameshwara rama based on S.K. Nagdish novel was the first Kannada film Directed by M.S. Satyu is a well known director of Hindi Films. Thabbailiyu Neenade magane a novel by B.L. Byrappa depicts the clash of values in the life of a young man who returns to his village to a foreigner wife. Chand Marutha directed by Pattabhirama Reddy was about the emergency and the following political turmoil. It was released in 1977 after the emergency ended. Chitegu chinte was the second picture directed by M.S. Satyu, master of Satire and political ridicule. The sattarical style combined with fantasies was striking. Spandana, it presented the story of a beautiful woman married to a widow the deaf and dumb child and a journey undertake. Spandana secured several awards. "
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    Hill Stations of Karnataka Part-2
    Shrungeri- The abode of 9th century philosopher Shankaracharya is popular seat of learning spiritual wisdom. It is presumed that Adishankara venoms one of the peak of this heels range. In kannada shrunga means peak and eri means climbing. The peak climbing by Adishankara got that name. The shrine of local deity Shardamba goddess of knowledge is the center of attraction of many devotees. Srimani falls near nilekigudda is spot which attracts all the pilgrims with its scenic view. Agumbe – It is 15 km away from Shringeri. In kannadaa gumba means ahi. Many believe that this mass of hills that stop the rain got that name. Agumbe is called the Cherrapunji of Karnataka’s it gets the highest rainfall in a year. This rainfall is also highest in the state. Many crowd comes here to see the sunset everyday. When there is a clear blue sky Arabian sea is visible from this height. The Lion tailed monkey and yellow snake are the rare wild animals species on the Agumbe hills. Kodachadri- Kodachu in kannnada means clean and adri means hill. Beacause of its serene spirit it is called the tapobhumi or the land of pennon meditative exploration. River Sauparnika takes birth to Kodachadri heels and flows down forming many water fall and reach the shores alongside the temple of Mokambika. Kundari Betta- It is rare and unusual hill resort the reason are that name relate itself to gensent kundakunda, the initiater of one of the ancient branch of gem pantheon of south. Kundari stands alone with its rare beauty and it is different from other hill resort. Nearby we find two small pond. Yana-It is isolated and lonely place away from Urban hassle. It is located in the middle of dense forest Uttar Kannada district which is the part of western ghat. In kannada Yana means Jane. It is believed a hectic jane to this aloof place may be the reason of entertaining such name. Shikhara meaning the peak of Bhairaveshavara and another Mohini shikhara meaning the peak of Mohini. It is about 60 feet in height Mohini shikhara is 270 feet in height. Yana is protected geographical monuments. Nandi Betta- Theere was a sculpture of the Nandi or bull on the top of the hill and hence it got that name. It is also called the Nandi Durga meaning fort upon the hill. It was the summer resort of Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan, the early ruler of Mysore king. Many Shelter built by them still exist. British created lush green garden around them. Savandurga- Earlier it was called by the name Samantdurga meaning the fortress of the sedentery later it was named as Savandurga and one of the desendent of this dynasty Kipegowda made savandurga capital between 1638 and 1728. He has fortified with long stone wall. The hill is surrounded by the forest with rare medicinal plant. It is rich source of traditional medicine. Devarayandurga- It is believed a chieftain by the name devraya built a fort upon this and hence it got that name. It is surrounded by a pic fort and dense forest all around. It is also believed that it is also birth place of river Jayamangali. Devarayanadurga is a religious place with ancient temple of Lord Yoganamsimha and Bhoganarsimha. Hills stations are abode of Gods and Goddesses.
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    Honouring in Kannada Culture
    In the annals of history, the opulence of Kannada culture is a matter of great pride reflecting a plethora of degrees, rewards, titles, donations and gifts, bestowed upon various soaring wars to the heroic and noteworthy beat of sacrifice. The reverence bestowed upon those who work for the state's security and welfare is telltale of the people. Scripture reveals that during the olden times the king not only donated to charity but also rewarded the helping people generously. The awards presented were noteworthy, nanjanguuDu taayuuru indicates that the king confers a part of his own made as a gesture of respect, as a gift I am giving you a part of my made and you son, shall be called by my name and I will have my name as Tirumala rajnayak. Those who received his name alongside there considered it to be the pinnacle of respect. Various prefixes of kings and emperors were used as titles next to their names. A claimed king, Srii Krishnadeevaraayaa of Tudulinage, had the title yavanaraajyasamsthapanaacaarya and in order to earn it, the king of Vijaymagara on certain occasions allowed his feet to be kissed. This was considered a great honour for the person who get this opportunity. Those who battle for victory in war by giving their own life would be conferred with a title and reward in memory of the dead warrior. Stone memorials would be erected to represent them as permanent as the sun and the moon. For the welfare of the brave warrior, the family land was reserved as a benefaction, such reserved land was called inettarugoDege baalgaLcu. Art was also greatly encouraged in the bygone era. The titles and honours bestowed to artists and sculptures indicate the kind of importance and the various form of art enjoyed. The spectator's record mention that in the entire span of Jambhudviipa, there had been no architect as skilled as Narasobba and also, that there would be no one like him in the future. Another sculpture of repute by the beholder is GunDa, who constructed the Lokeshwara temple for Lookamahadevi the queen of King Vikramaditya, SatyaaSraya bestowed him with the title tribhuvanaacaari and took him on a procession three times as a mark of honour. Dance and Music were a popular forms of art in society. People used to get titles in honour of their work. Pampa, a writer of literature got the title of Gunarnava. Some of the very famous writers were Pampa, Ranna and Ponna, today they are referred to as ‘The three poetic gems”. Jottitaayamma and Dr K.venkatlakshamma had extraordinary accomplishments in the field of dance. In politics, administration or in the field of art, drama and music, it was customary to appoint a head and the appointed was known as the court head. Only those artists chosen by the court head would receive the honour. “Varshavardanthi” was a festival as prominent as Navaratri. On that day a felicitation would be organized at the ceremonial hall of the Mysore palace, which later on was at Ambavilas Durbar hall. The Diwans used to get the titles of “Rajasevabhushana” and “Rajakaaryaa Praveena” which were for “Diwan cader”. The artists such as musicians, painters and social workers would sit with Diwans in the “Bandrasana’, then, on a silver plate, called “paraabh”, they would place a gold chain, medal and a gondaberunda pendant, with the Mysore’s king’s emblem. A person would bring the chain and a robe and carry the plate to the king, then the king would just touch the plate and after this formality, the Huzur’s secretary, or the Durbar “Bakshi”, would put the jewel on the persons’ neck with the pendant and there robe his shoulder. Najar-Najaraana is a word derived from Urdu which means offering. Kanike, is another such word, which means offering given to God, king or elders in respectful manners. Another word associated with the culture is Parakuu. Karnataka Kalatilaka and Santa Sisunalaa are awarded for the field of Music. Naadooja award is for literature, Santalaa award for dance, Ekalavya award for achievers in sports, and Karnataka Ratna is the award for lifetime achievement in the field of art. Raajyootsava award is another such award which gives recognition to these various such activities, today. While universities give doctorates to great achievers who accomplish extraordinarily in their respective fields, organization and monasteries offer honour in their own ways by giving titles and shields. To people who have highly contributed to the regional language, the Indian government honoured them with Padmabhushana and Padmashrii awards.
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    History of Carnatic Music and Vachana Literature
    "Music is a universal language. It is the emblem of a culture. Indian music is believed to have been originated from two different sources, one is nature and the other is Vedas and mythology. Sounds produced by birds and animals, wind paasing through folly and through holes in bamboo made by insects, while rivers are flowing. All thses prompted the imagination of man and inspired it to create music. Cry of peacock, bellow of bull, bleat of sheep, call of heron, song of cuckoo, neighing of horse, trumpet of elephant are the corresponding sounds for all seven svaras. This Sanskrit verse found in Amar Koosa by Amar Simha and the revised kannada version of this is “Viveeka Cintaamani’’ by Nijaguna Sivayoogi in 16th century. Yajnavalkya Smriti says A person who is a musician can easily attain Mooksa.i.e.,Salvation. From Sound syllables are formed, from syllables words are formed, from words speech are formed. All mundane activities happen through speech.This shloka found in Sangita Ratnakara, 13th century treaties on music in Sanskrit describes that Phenominal world is controlled by naada. There are two types of Naada.i.e., Ahata and Anahata. Ahata is classified into six kinds. The sphere of Indian classic music includes Classical music, Folk music and Light Music. Indian classic music has developed into two main streams Carnatic and Hindustani. The predominant version practiced in southern states of India is known as Carnatic or Daakshinaatya. Hindusthaani or Auttareeya kind of music is practiced in rest of the country.While Carnatic music developed without any external influences. Folk music is composed in rural and spoken language.It contains subjects from all sphere of life. Light music denotes Bhavgeeta popular singing of poems not adhering to classical novels. Like this there are stage music, dance music,film, music and etc. In kannada Literature there are several references to music. Kannada poet Aadi Kavi Pampa of 10th century writes people who are abode to sacrifice, opulence, learning, conference, beauty, Pleasantness and singing are real human beings. Chandrasekhara, the poet of eight languages in his book Pampaasthaana Varanna mentions about 18 kinds of flute. Contributions of people of Karnataka to Carnatic music is unique. In kannada, Sivasarana’s Vachana literature of the 12th century is our earliest song. Sivasarana’s literature is identified as Vachana, SvaraVachana. In one of the popular Vacanna, Basavanna praised the god to convert his entire body into an instrument to play and sing the eulogy. Thus Vachana literature is a milestone in kannda literature and Carnatic music. "